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"Baboy ramo" refers to several wild pig species found in the Philippines. There are four (4) recognized wild pig species that are endemic to the Philippines and occurs through most of the country, the Philippine Warty Pig (Sus philippensis), the Visayan Warty Pig (Sus cebifrons), the Mindoro Warty Pig (Sus oliveri) and the Palawan Bearded Pig (Sus ahoenobarbus).
Philippine Warty Pig (Sus philippensis)
The robustly built Philippine warty pig has a coarse, bristly, blackish coat with a scattering of silvery white hairs on the sides. Long, stiff hairs form a crest running down the middle of the back, which is particularly conspicuous in males during the breeding season when if forms a prominent mane over the head crest and neck. The medium-length tail has a tuft of long, black hairs at the tip, used to swat away flies and signal mood.
The Philippine warty pig has a long snout, terminating in a flat, mobile disc with the nostrils in the centre. The teeth are well-developed, with the large upper and lower canines forming laterally and upwardly protruding tusks in males. It has relatively small eyes and ears, and its narrow feet have four toes, but only the two central toes are used for walking.
Visayan Warty Pig (Sus cebifrons) - also known as Oliver’s Warty Pig
Status: Critically Endangered
The Visayan warty pig is a little-known, small, forest-dwelling pig that has only recently been recognised as a separate species. The males (boars) are much larger than females (sows) and, uniquely amongst wild pigs, develop crests and manes that are up to 23 cm long during the breeding season. Sows have only 3 pairs of nipples, a feature that was previously thought to be unique to the pygmy hog (Sus salvanius).
Mindoro Warty Pig (Sus oliveri)
The Mindoro Warty Pig was recognized as a separate species from Sus philippensis. It is known from four skulls and a mounted head collected in 1993 now in the Field Museum in Chicago, USA.
Palawan Bearded Pig (Sus ahoenobarbus)
Palawan bearded pig has an elongated skull and a dense tuft of coarse, white hair surrounding the cheek and snout. Supported on long legs, its large body is reddish-brown to black and sparsely haired. The male is slightly larger than the female and has small but marked facial warts, which are thought to provide protection during head-to-head fights.
Threat and Conservation
The Philippine wild pigs are technically fully protected by Philippine law. Unfortunately, however, the generally extreme levels of deforestation on most islands on which they occur, coupled with intense hunting pressure, inadequate legal protection and the poor enforcement of existing legislation even within most protected areas, have resulted in the systematic decline of all Philippine populations of these animals. To improve these pigs’ situation, programs to educate local people and to alter their negative attitudes towards wild pigs have been recommended. Further research into its exact distribution, status, and biology has also been suggested, which will help inform any conservation or management plan for the Philippine wild pigs.
For further information, see:
1) IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™
Sus philippensis - http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/21176/0
Sus cebifrons - http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/21175/0
Sus oliveri - http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/136340/0
Sus ahoenobarbus - http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/21177/0
2) Pigs, Peccaries, and Hippos Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/1993-055.pdf
1. ARKive http://www.arkive.org (accessed 25 April 2010)
2. IUCN Red List http://www.iucnredlist.org (accessed 25 April 2010)
3. Oliver, W.L.R. (1993) Pigs, Peccaries, and Hippos Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Photo courtesy of: NOAH WORLD http://www.noahworld.org (accessed 25 April 2010).